Naučite engleski jezik kod gospodina Duncana - Lekcija 49 (hrana)
So it is a beautiful day here in England and a perfect opportunity to do a little bit of gardening. The nettles have grown quite tall around here, so I need to chop them down with my trusty little electric strimmer.
Hi everybody, this is Misterduncan in England, how… Misterduncan!! Misterduncan!! Misterduncan!! Oh hello Mr Lomax, how are you? What's the problem? Misterduncan, I'm hungry… can I have something to eat please? Of course you can… what would you like to eat? Mmmm… I would like a big juicy Banana if that's OK! Mmmm… Banana eh? Let me see. I've got a Banana here som… Ah there's one! One juicy Banana. There you go. Is that OK for you? Mmm… Thank you very much! Bon Appetit. Now then, where was I?… Oh yes! Hi everybody, this is Misterduncan in England. How are you today? Are you OK?… I hope so! Are you happy?… I hope so! In today's lesson we will look at a common item which is for each of us, an important part of our daily life and our means of survival. Today we will talk about food.
It makes up a large part of our daily routine, most people love it, some people get too much of it, while others get too little. It can be both good and bad for you, and we need it to survive. Oh yes, without food our lives would be very short indeed.
The word 'food' is a mass noun and means any substance that can be consumed and absorbed into the body and has the ability to provide all the necessary energy for us to function and survive. The word 'food' comes from ancient Germanic and in ancient English, was closely associated with the word 'fodder'.
Hello… is there anybody there? Most food is made up many different elements and compounds, which are generally good for us and help our bodies to function and stay in good shape. Vitamins are one of the most important because the Human body cannot produce them on its own. There are many different vitamins around and they are normally present in a wide range of natural food. To make identifying them easier they all have their own specific letter or grouping. For example…
Vitamin A. Which is normally called Retinol. Vitamin B. Which is broken down into smaller groups. For instance… B1 - Thiamine. B2 - Riboflavin. B6 - Pyridoxine. Vitamin C. Which is normally called Ascorbic Acid and is found in most types of fruit and vegetables. Vitamin D is important for our Calcium intake and helps our bones to grow and stay strong. Besides being in certain food vitamin D is also produced by our skin from the ultraviolet rays of sunlight.
It is worth noting that these are present in very tiny amounts which is lucky for us because the Human body only requires a very small daily amount to function properly. Keeping the balance of these elements right is very important as too much of them is just as bad as too little.
Then there is Protein which helps the body to function and stay well maintained. Protein is made up of small organic chemicals called… Amino Acids. These are absorbed from food during digestion and are used to create new proteins and other substances that the body requires.
Finally let us not forget one of the most important intakes that the body requires in order to function and survive. Water. Around 60% of your body (weight) is made up of water. The water in your body keeps you cool, it helps to keep the joints of your bones soft and supple. It carries nutrients to your tiny skin cells and it helps to carry away all of the waste and toxins which would otherwise build up and cause you to become ill. Water is being constantly used and lost by the body through sweating and… going to the toilet. Needless to say, you must drink plenty of water every day.
Food is also responsible for providing another very important part of our daily intake… Energy. As we discussed in a previous lesson the Human body is similar to a machine and just like any machine it needs energy which it must burn in order to function. Our muscles need energy to work and even the most basic functions within the body, use up energy.
Most of our energy comes from two main sources. Carbohydrates which are sugar or starch based and… fat which can be stored in the body and then converted into energy as the body needs it. We often use the word… burn when talking about the way in which the body uses energy, for example… The body 'burns' up fat. Although this does not mean that all fat is easily used up, as we will find out later.
Mmm… what shall I have to eat? Let's have a look in the refrigerator. Oooh. Aahhh. Cheese. Nice! When we need food, our bodies will tell us by making us feel the desire to eat. This is called your appetite. You will feel hungry. You want to relieve your hunger. You need to eat some food. The desire to eat is a very strong one and in some instances, hunger can cause strong emotional reactions such as sadness or anger. The importance of food varies from person to person, some see it as a daily chore or as a means of socialising with friends, while others see it as a comfort during lonely or difficult times. For some people, eating food becomes the most important activity in their lives. This is where problems can begin to set in. Eating to much is just as bad as eating too little. Our bodies can only cope with a certain intake of food per day and anything over that will cause serious health problems in the future.
Mmmm… Chicken salad with mango and soured cream dressing. That sounds delicious. It is good fun to cook your own food, but there are usually rules and guidelines which must be followed when making a meal. These are often written in recipe books, such as this one. The word 'recipe' comes from Latin and originally meant 'to receive'.
When cooking something, we normally use a verb to describe the way in which it is being prepared. For example… Bake a cake. Boil some potatoes. Fry an egg. Grill some bread. Roast a chicken. Steam some vegetables. Stew some meat.
Sometimes this is for religious reasons or as a moral stand against the killing of animals for human consumption. We may dislike certain types of food because of its… odour or the way it looks. For example… I really dislike mushrooms. I do not like the way they smell before and after being cooked. The thought of eating a mushroom makes me feel very unwell. Some people avoid certain food because their bodies are sensitive to it. For example… Peanuts and certain seafood… such as oysters or prawns. They have an allergy. They are allergic to it. If they ate some of it, then they may become very sick or even die!
The combination of different items intended for eating is called a meal or a dish. And these have different names depending on when they are served. The morning meal is… Breakfast. The midday meal is called… Lunch. And the evening meal can be called… Dinner or if it is much later… Supper.
Sometimes we may go out to eat food. Maybe we will go to a… Restaurant and order some food from the… Menu. The person who serves you at the table is called a… Waiter and if they are female, a… Waitress. The meal is usually divided into sections. Each one is called a… Course.
First there is the… Starter which is normally a small serving of food, such as… Soup or Salad. Some people do not have a starter, worrying that they may have trouble finishing the main meal. Then there is the… Main Course which is the largest part of the meal. Finally there is the… Dessert which can also be called the… Sweet. This is normally a small portion of… ice cream… or a hot pudding, or cake.
Yeah! Every country around the world has its own special type of food. For example… Italy is well known for Pasta and Spaghetti. India is well known for its… hot spicy dishes. China is well known for its fried food. The UK is famous for… Fish and Chips… Roast Beef and Yorkshire Pudding. All this talk about food is making me very hungry.
A person who eats too much food or more food than they need can be described as… Greedy or Gluttonous. They may even be called a… Pig. A person who has nothing to eat or is in need of food can be described as… Deprived, Famished, Starving, Undernourished, Unfed.
It is true that we all need food for our survival, but that does not mean that all food is good for us. As I mentioned earlier our main source of energy comes from sugar and fat. However eating too much food containing fat and sugar will lead to us having health problems and physical changes. The most obvious one being our size and weight. A person who is too heavy is classed as… Obese. They are too large and this puts a very big strain on certain parts of the body especially the heart and certain bone joints.
The energy from Fat is normally burned by the body during daily activity, but some people take in more fat that the body needs. So that extra fat is stored until required. Needless to say this causes the body to become larger and if that habit of eating fatty food continues, so will the weight gain. Food items with a very high fat content are often referred to as… Junk Food, Hamburgers, Fried Chicken and sweet food such as… Chocolate are often referred to as junk food. However some believe that it is not the food itself which is bad, but the actual amount of it we eat per day.
Of course losing too much weight is just as bad as having too much. Some people become obsessed by their weight and in certain cases they become too thin and skinny. They are… Anorexic. They suffer from… Anorexia. Some of the blame for this has been directed at clothing designers and Hollywood movie makers, who appear to project the image of being slim as the most attractive and desirable, which can pressurise some young people, especially girls, into seriously damaging their health. They are literally dying to be slim.
We measure the energy from food in calories and the higher the calorific number, then the more energy it contains. Controlling the amount of calories you take into your body each day can help you to keep a healthy weight and also stay fit. If you are too heavy, then it is possible to lose weight. You can go on a diet, which means you only eat certain types of food and avoid the very unhealthy things such as… Chocolate and Deep Fried Food. Besides healthy eating, you will also need to take regular exercise, so as to burn off all the extra fat.
Feeding the world's human population has always been a problem for us. Even today in our modern and technologically advanced world there are still countries where water and basic food supplies are little and few. The reasons for this situation vary from area to area. The harsh climate, too much sun and not enough rain. Large populations forced to live in terrible conditions due to the turmoil of war. Famine, Starvation, Malnutrition, and Hunger are for many people still an unbearable reality of living in the world today.
Meals and food have different names depending on their size when they are eaten and where they are served. Hamburgers and other similar food is easy to make and serve so it is called Convenience Food or Fast Food. Mcdonalds KFC and Burger King are all classed as fast food restaurants. A quick small meal is called a Snack or a Bite. A meal where you select and serve your own food is called a Buffet. A large meal served to many people in a hall is called a Banquet.
There are many ways of expressing hunger. 'I feel Hungry.' 'I'm Starving.' 'I'm Famished.' 'I'm Ravenous.' 'I've got to eat soon, or I will faint.' 'My Stomach is telling me to eat.' 'Wow, I really have to eat something.' 'I'm so hungry…' 'I could eat a Horse!'
Cooking food has become a very popular activity for many people and these days there are lots of cookery programmes on television presented by celebrity chefs, although some of them do tend to be quite rude and impolite… such as this guy.
I like chopping them up into little pieces and then boiling them in water then I mash them with butter. It's called Mashed Potatoes. Can you mash-up potatoes? I guess you can't, cause you're not a chef like me! I hate everyone! I'm Dave Nasty saying… Go cook yourself! Goodbye! Presented by Dave Nasty. Produced by Mind Your Own Business. Camera Operator - Stop Looking At My Bird. Directed by Lets Take It Outside!
There are many slang words for food, such as… Chow, Eats, Grub, Nosh, Nosebag, Nibbles, Tucker. Vegetables are often referred to as… 'Greens' which relates to not only their appearance, but also to their apparent natural health benefits.
The subject of preparing food is normally called Cookery. The group word for all kinds of different cooking styles is… Cuisine. For example… French Cuisine, Greek Cuisine, Italian Cuisine. A person who studies food and its effect on the body is called a… Dietitian or Nutritionist. A person who cooks food as a job is called a… Cook or… Chef. The word 'Chef' comes from the French language and means… 'Head'.
It would be fair to say that most of us take food for granted. We rarely stop and think about how fortunate and lucky we all are to be able to just reach in to a cupboard or refrigerator and grab a bite to eat. For a large percentage of the population, a trip to the supermarket is a routine activity. These days the task has become even simpler, now that supermarkets have begun bringing your weekly food shopping directly to your front door. So you do not even have to leave the house, to get all the food you need. Recent studies have shown that more and more of us are eating too much food and that this is having an impact on our general health. Diabetes… Heart Disease… Strokes… and certain forms of Cancer are often associated with being overweight or Obese. So it would be wise for all of us to try and control the amount of food we eat. Daily exercise and a balanced diet is the only way to ensure that your body stays in tip-top condition. For the food you eat today, will determine how healthy you will be later on in life.
Well another lesson has come to an end. Thank you for watching me, teaching you! Stay happy and healthy until the next time we meet here on Youtube and don't forget to subscribe to my channel, that is, if you have not already done so. This is Misterduncan in England saying… Ta-ta for now!