PROVERITE ENGLESKI! Nepravilni Past Participli

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Hello. I'm Gill at www.engvid.com, and today's lesson is on irregular past tenses. Okay?

And in particular: "Irregular Past Participles"-okay?-of irregular verbs. So, let me just show you

some examples to make it clearer what I mean. Okay.

So what we're doing, we're looking at three different tenses to show how the verb changes,

so the present simple of the verb, then the past simple, and then when we use the present

perfect that's when you have to use the past participle. And what happens is sometimes

it's the same for both the past simple and the present perfect, but with other verbs

it's different. So I just have two examples here to show you, one verb where it's the

same and one verb where it's different just to illustrate. And then in the second part

of the lesson we will have a list of two separate sets of verbs, and I will test you on your

knowledge of the past participles of those and they're listed under "same" and "different"

just to clarify which ones stay the same, which ones are different. Okay. So let's have

a look at some examples, and then it should all become clearer.

So, first of all, this is the present simple: "I catch a cold every winter." Every winter,

achoo, I'm sneezing. Oh, terrible, every winter I catch a cold. So for something that happens

regularly, that is one way that we use the present simple when something happens regularly.

Every, every winter I catch a cold, so the verb is "to catch", okay? So then if we put

it into the past tense, the past simple and we say: "Last month... I caught a cold last

month." Okay? So: "caught" is the irregular past simple form of the verb "to catch". "I

caught a cold last month." I caught a cold last month, but I'm much better now. That

sort of idea. Okay. So then the third example here is using the present perfect which involves

using this word: "have" as an auxiliary, as an extra verb. So: "I have caught another

cold!" Oh dear, I only had a cold... I caught a cold last month, and now I have caught another

cold. That's one cold after another. So this is in the more recent past, the present perfect

using "have": "I have caught another cold." Meaning just recently. So you can see here

that "caught" stays the same, it's the same. So it's an example where the past simple and

the present perfect stay the same, but let's have a look now at an example where there's

a change and where they're different. Okay?

So, back to the present simple again and the verb is "to write", which is an irregular

verb, so: "I write to my cousin once a year." I have a cousin who is not on email, and it

makes it rather inconvenient to keep in touch with her, so writing letters and putting them

in the post I find a terrible job these days. I'm so used to using email for everybody,

but I have a cousin who's not on email and she will not have a computer. So I have to

write a letter to her. "I write to my cousin once a year." Okay? So, again, that's using

the present simple for a regular action. Once a year is the regular action, I write. Okay,

so then if we move to the past simple: "Last week... I wrote to my cousin last week." So

that's the past simple. So, the form there for the past simple is "wrote", from "write"

to "wrote", but then if we use the present perfect using the auxiliary "have": "Today...

I have written to my cousin today." So recent past, it's a completed action. "I have written".

Thank goodness I've got that letter written and posted, and it's gone now, so that's a

job done for the year. So: "I have written", so you can see there that this form is not

the same. They're the same here: "I caught", "I have caught", but with "write": "I wrote",

"I have written to my cousin today." So you can see how past simple and present perfect

with different verbs, sometimes they stay the same, other times they're different. Okay.

So let's move on to the second part of the lesson, and we'll have a look at two lists

of verbs, and I will test you on your knowledge of the past participles.

Okay, so let's have a look at these which are the verbs which stay the same in the past

simple and the present perfect, and I will just write that form in, but just to give

you an opportunity first to think what it is. So: "to send", I send in the present.

"Yesterday I

sent", did you get that one? Okay, so: "Yesterday I sent", it's always

useful to think of some words like: "Yesterday" or "Last week I" to help you to form the simple

past tense. Okay.

Right, so "make", the verb "to make". "Yesterday I

made", okay? So these are all irregular,

so they're not going to be with "ed" on the end, they're going to be different. Sometimes

it means that the consonant changes, like from "make", "k" to "d", "d" to "t", sometimes

a vowel will change from one vowel letter to another.

So, let's carry on: "I pay. I pay. Yesterday I

paid." So that changes from an "a" to an "i" and then with a "d" added. Okay?

Next one: "to say". "Today I say, yesterday I

said." So that's pronounced "said", not

"sayd". This is pronounced: "payd", but that's not pronounced "sayd". "Paid", "said", so

there's a different pronunciation there. Okay, good.

Next one: "to think". "Today I think, yesterday

I..."That's a funny one, isn't it? "o-u-g-h-t"

often appears in English words: "I thought", "I thought", "I think, I thought". And, of

course, with the present perfect you would say: "I have sent, I have made, I have paid,

I have said, I have thought", so it stays the same in the present perfect. Okay?

Let's carry on. "I stand". Today I stand here in front of a camera. "Yesterday I

stood". Did you get that one? So, from "a" to double "o", and we lose the "n". "Stand", "stood",

and: "I have stood as well." Okay.

"Buy". "Today I buy some oranges, yesterday I

bought", so it's a bit like "thought". "Thought",

"bought". Okay?

Next one: "tell". "I tell... I tell my friends something today. Yesterday I

told". So the

"e" changes to "o", two l's change to one "l", and we add a "d". "Tell", "told", and

also: "I have told". Just the same. Okay?

"Bring". "I bring. Yesterday I..."

Another one of those. "Brought". We have: "thought",

"bought", "brought". Okay?

Right, next column: "lose". "I lose... I lose my keys all the time. Yesterday I

lost", and

then: "I have lost. I have lost my keys again". "I lost", "I have lost", stays the same. Okay.

"To have". "Today I have something. I have a bottle of water. Yesterday I

had". And also,

with the present perfect: "I have had", "have had", so the verb "to have" appears twice

like that. "I have", "I had", "I have had". Okay.

"To sell". "Today I sell my car. Yesterday I...

I sold", and then a week later I might

say to a friend: "I have sold my car." Okay?

"Meet". "Today I meet, yesterday I

met". So, one "e" rather than two. "Yesterday I met

somebody famous", and then I can say: "I have met that famous person. I have met", okay?

"Sit". "Today I sit, yesterday I

sat". So from "i" to "a": "I sat". And also: "I have

sat." Okay?

"Find". "Today I find my keys. I lost them, now I find them. Yesterday I

found", found

them in a strange place. In the fridge. What were they doing in the fridge? I found my

keys in the fridge, and I said: "Look, I have found my keys." Okay? So: "find", "found",

"have found".

"Leave". "I leave. I leave. Yesterday I

left", "left", okay? And: "I have left".

Next one here: "I hear something. I hear something. What do I hear? Yesterday

I heard", so the vowel sound changes: "ear", "er": "hear", "heard", it's spelt "h-e-a-r"

plus a "d", but the vowel sound changes. "I hear", "I heard", and: "I have heard".

Right, and finally for this one before we move on to the different ones: "Teach". "I

teach English. Yesterday I...

I taught. I taught French yesterday." I didn't really,

but today I teach English, yesterday I taught French. I have taught English for many years.

Okay? "Teach", "taught", "have taught". Okay, so those are all the ones that stay the same,

and now let's have a look at the ones that change in the past participle.

Okay, so let's have a look at the verbs that change from the past simple to the present

perfect using "have". So here are some examples. So: "forget". "Today I forget. Yesterday I

forgot", so "e" changes to "o". "I forgot". And: "Oh dear, I have...

I have forgotten". "Forgotten", okay? So that's where it changes in the present perfect: "I have forgotten".

All right.

Next one: "I give". "Today I give, yesterday I

gave" with an "a", "i" to "a". "I gave yesterday."

And: "I have given", so it's back to "give" with an "n" on the end. "I gave", "I have

given". Right.

Next one: "to know". "Today I know, yesterday I...

I knew", so "o" to "e". "I knew". "Yesterday

I knew". And: "I have..." If you're thinking of a friend you met 20 years ago: "I have

_____ my friend for 20 years. I have known", so it's back to "know" with an "n" on the

end: "I have known my friend for 20 years." Okay?

Next one: "sing". "Today I sing, yesterday I

sang", "i" to "a", and: "I have

sung", so it goes from "i" to "a" to "u". "I sing", "I sang", "I have sung".

Next one: "eat". "I eat bread every day. Yesterday I

ate", this is a funny one, the way it's

pronounced. "I ate" or some people say "ate", it could be either. "Eat", "ate" or "ate",

and: "I have", it's a bit like this again, but with a bit of extra added. "Eaten", "eaten",

"I have eaten something and it's made me feel ill". So: "eat", "ate", "eaten".

Next one, the verb... The important verb: "to be". "Today I am", of course this is going

to change depending on the person you're using, but: "I am", "Yesterday I was", or "we were",

and: "I" or "we have

been", so it's back to "be" with another "en" on the end, so that's

quite different: "was", "were", "been", "I have been", "We have been". Okay?

The verb "to do", "I do. Yesterday I

did", and: "I have

done", so back to the "o" again.

"Do", "did", "done", "I have done". Right.

Next one: "take". "Today I take, yesterday I

took", and: "I have", back to "take" again:

"taken". So often this one goes back to looking more similar to the first one: "take", "took",

"taken".

"Ring", "Today I ring, yesterday I

rang my friend," and: "I have

rung". "Ring", "rang", "rung", "I have rung".

Okay, next one: "drive". "Today I drive to work, yesterday I

drove to work. I drove",

and: "I have

driven", back again to the "i", "drive", "driven". "Drive", "drove", "have driven".

Okay, next one: "break". "I break, yesterday I

broke", and: "I have", this time it stays very similar:

"I have broken", "broken", with an "n" on the end. Okay?

Next one: "I speak, yesterday I

spoke, I have

spoken". Again, similar to "break", "broken",

"speak", "spoke", "spoken". Some of them are very similar. You can see similarities in

the way they change. Okay.

Okay: "run", "I run every day, yesterday I

ran", and: "I have

run". So: "run", it's back

to the same here: "I have run".

Okay, next one: "see". "I see, yesterday I

saw", it's a bit different, "a-w", "saw".

And: "I have

seen". So it's back to "see" with an "n" added.

And then finally: "drink". "I drink, yesterday I

drank" with an "a", and: "I have

drunk". "Drink", "drank", "drunk". Okay?

Right, so I hope that's been a useful overview of these different verbs, irregular verbs

and how some of them change in the past participle when combined with "have", and some of them

don't change, they stay the same. So, if you'd like to go to the website, www.engvid.com

and do the quiz there to test your knowledge on this, and thank you for watching and see

you again soon. Okay, bye for now.

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