Hi Guys! I'm Arnel and today we're going to look at the four conditionals plus mixed
conditionals. Okay I'm going to begin with a general overview of the conditionals
and I will get more specific as the lesson continues. In English, we
have four conditionals 0 1 2 and 3 plus mixed conditionals. Each conditional has an IF clause
comma and a main clause.
The IF clause gives us a condition. When I say condition, I mean situation,
and the main clause gives us the result. The zero and the first conditional express
real possible conditions and results, the second and third conditional express
impossible, hypothetica,l unreal conditions and results. Mixed conditionals are a combination
of the second and third conditional. So, I know it looks like a lot of information
but by the end of this lesson you'll feel a lot more confident and comfortable with conditionals.
So, let's begin let's begin with the zero conditional. Condition | Result
if plus present simple present simple. We use the zero conditional to express real conditions and
results that are always the same. Same in the past, same in the present, same in the future. For example,
here I have two trees - If the wind blows, the trees move. If plus present simple / present simple.
This is real because wind always moves trees right. This will will never change.
So you can move the clauses around and there's no difference.
Maybe there's a little difference, a mini difference.
In writing, if your IF clause comes first ,add that comma. If your main clause comes first you don't
need a comma. So throughout this lesson you'll see I'll kind of change things up. I'll start with
the IF clause, I'll start with the main clause just so you know both ways are absolutely fine.
If I drink coffee after 3 PM, I don't sleep at night. IF plus present simple /
present simple. This is always true for me. It's always the same. Same in the past, same in the
present, same in the future. I don't sleep at night if I drink coffee after 3 PM. Same thing.
Now, imagine you're giving someone a tour of a building.
If you push this button, the lights come on. You can see, this is always going to be the same, it's never
going to change. This button will never do anything else. Imagine the zero conditional as a person...
This person would be Miss Obvious. She would tell you everything you already know.
For example.... Hey Arnel! Yeah? I have something really interesting to tell you.
Okay.... If you leave ice cream in the sun,... yeah... it melts.
Yes, yes it does.
People get hungry if they don't eat.
So you can see the zero conditional is very good at expressing things
that are always true things that never really change. When you get home, call me.
If Phil calls, don't answer the phone. If you accidentally drop some trash, pick it up.
-call me -don't answer the phone -pick it up, these are all imperatives, right?
An imperative is a command. We can use the imperative in the zero conditional.
You can see the grammar is the same. IF present simple / present simple.
But here, I'm using WHEN. When you get home, call me. So what's the difference between if and when?
If you put a stone in water, it sinks. When you put a stone in water, it sinks. There is no difference
in meaning because this is always true. But sometimes, there is a difference. Let's get specific.
WHEN - I'm certain this will happen, I am expecting this.
IF - maybe this will happen. When you get home, call me. In this situation I'm expecting my
friend to get home. Ff course she's going home. We had dinner together, and now she's going home.
We'll look at this again in the first conditional.
First conditional. condition | result. IF plus present simple / will plus infinitive. What's the infinitive?
You might know it as the 'base form'. Infinitive / base form is verb number one.
eat ate eaten, eat is my infinitive. talk talked talked, talk is also my infinitive.
In the first conditional you'll often see will. WILL plus infinitive, but other modal
verbs are perfectly fine, any modal verb that can give you that future feeling:
can could may might. We can also use GOINGTO because 'going to' is a future form.
We use the first conditional for a possible future condition and its possible future result.
If we don't leave soon, we'll miss our train. IF present simple / will infinitive.
If I'm late for work again, I might lose my job.
present simple / might plus infinitive. When you tell Dan the news, he's gonna faint.
gonna gonna gonna - of course in spoken English 'gonna' is very informal, very lazy actually. When
you're writing you want to write 'going to' and FAINT is when you do this, when you're
excited or scared or in love. So when you tell Dan the news, he's going to faint. Of course with all
of these you can also switch those clauses around no problem. And you can see I'm using WHEN. I'm
expecting this, I know you're going to tell Dan the news. So let's look at unless. Unless? what is
unless? So unless is a very common alternative for IF...NOT...
If you don't get an invitation, you can't come to the party. If.. not = unless. Unless you
get an invitation, you can't come to the party. Here I mean, no invitation, no party.
If this program doesn't load, I won't be able to finish my work.
If... not = unless. Unless this program loads, I won't be able to finish my work. No load, no work.
Zero conditional - done. First conditional - done. Let's compare them.
If I have time, I work out. Work out means exercise. If I have time,
I'll work out. So what's the difference? Zero conditional - this is true just generally in my life.
If I have time, I work out. So I work out maybe two times a week.
First conditional is more specific. It's about a specific
future condition. What are you doing later today? Later today? If I have time, I'll work out. I'LL.
So remember earlier, I said: the second and third conditional express
impossible hypothetical unreal conditions and results. Unreal, impossible, hypothetical, hmm...
Sorry I couldn't resist doing that. So just keep that feeling in mind as we look
at the second and third conditional. Second conditional: condition | result.
If plus past simple / would plus infinitive. WOULD is probably the most common
modal verb you'll see, but you can also use other modal verbs. Might, could are also possible.
We use the second conditional to speak about an imaginary unreal hypothetical present or future
condition, plus its imaginary unreal result. I know it's strange, we're using the past simple here
but we really are speaking about the present or the future. So just keep that in mind.
If I won the lottery,
I would buy a mansion. A mansion is a big house, a big beautiful expensive house.
IF plus past simple / would plus infinitive. I would buy a mansion if I won the lottery.
You can see this is a very unreal condition and an impossible result.
If I were shorter, I would wear heels more.
IF plus past simple / would plus infinitive. Now, why am I using WERE? Were I? Was I! I was!
Right? When it comes to the second conditional we often use WERE with any subject. If I were,
if he were, she were. Yes WAS is also possible, but some people consider WERE to be more correct.
You know, the second conditional is used a lot in songs.
That's because in songs people are dreaming, right? They're dreaming about
life, they're dreaming about love. So I'm going to play you a short a short piece of one of my
favorite songs from one of my favorite musicals. So listen out for that second conditional Okay.
Okay so here we have it, in the musical a poor man is dreaming about being rich, so
he's using the second conditional. If plus past simple, notice that WERE / would plus infinitive...
biddy biddy bum. okay obviously biddy biddy bum is not a verb, but you can really see that grammar.
Uh there's just so much information. I can't remember everything.
If I were you, I wouldn't worry. Conditionals take a long time to learn.
Sometimes the best way to review and to learn grammar is not by learning them
separately. but by comparing them so let's do that. If I listen to music on my phone, I use headphones.
If I listen to music on my phone, I'll use headphones. - I'll I'll. If I listen to music
on my phone, I'd use headphones. So what's the difference? Zero conditional: I always listen to
music on my phone. When I do this, when I listen to music on my phone, I use headphones every time.
First conditional: more specific. Imagine you and a friend are studying.
I'm gonna take a break. I might get a coffee or listen to some music. No no music, I am studying.
Yeah, if i listen to music, I'll use my headphones, okay?
You won't hear anything. You can see a specific situation.
Second conditional: I never listen to music on my phone, I like the radio, but if
I listened to music on my phone, I'd use headphones. The sound quality is better I think.
Third conditional. condition | result. If plus past perfect. Remember, we formed the past perfect had
plus past participle. What's the past participle? It's verb number three. eat ate eaten, eaten is my
past participle. Remember the infinitive? talk talked talked, talked is my past participle.
Would have would have plus past participle. Now, we always use HAVE, even if our subject
is he or she, we use HAVE. HAVE every time for every subject. WOULD is probably the most common,
but you can also use COULD. We use the third conditional to speak about a past unreal
impossible situation, condition, plus its impossible result. So third conditional is all about the past.
If I had studied harder, I would have passed my exam. In reality I didn't study hard so in
reality I didn't pass my exam. 'would've' - when speaking we always contract.
If I'd studied harder, I would have passed my exam.
If you want to get lazier, you can just say WOULDA. I WOULDA passed my exam.
I would have made more food if I had known Karen and Paul were coming.
In reality, I didn't make more food because I didn't know they were coming. If I'd known
Karen and Paul were coming I would have made more food.
If I hadn't tripped, I could have, I could have won the race. In reality I did trip so I didn't win.
You can see all of these are impossible because you cannot change the past
impossible past condition and their impossible result.
Review again: zero one two three, let's compare all four conditionals to really get that feeling.
If we drive, we get there faster.
If we drive, we'll get there faster. If we drove, we'd get there faster. WE'D = we would.
If we had driven, we would have gotten there faster. We would have gotten there faster.
Zero conditional: my husband and I work in the same office. Sometimes we walk, sometimes we drive.
If we drive, when we drive, we get there faster.
Of course, driving is faster than walking. Remember Miss Obvious?
First conditional: this isn't general like the zero conditional, this is specific right?
So tomorrow I want to visit my parents. Oh we can take the four o'clock train. The four o'clock train?
If we drive, we'll get there faster. Specific future this is a possible.
future conditional and a possible result - If we drive, we'll get there faster.
Second conditional: my husband and I, we don't have a car. It would be impossible to drive. We walk, we
take the bus, but if we, if we drove, we'd get there faster. We'd get to work faster. Third conditional :
We got to my parents house 30 minutes late.
If we had driven, we would have gotten there faster. The train was 30 minutes late. Past
hypothetical condition because we didn't drive, we took the train.
So the good news is, when we look at mixed conditionals we can forget
about the zero and first conditional. So let's keep going we're almost done.
So we know the second condition is about a hypothetical present future - If past simple
would infinitive (or other modal). We know the third conditional is about a hypothetical
past condition with a hypothetical past result. If plus past perfect / would have plus past participle.
So what happens if I want to speak about a
hypothetical past condition with a hypothetical present result? I need to mix them right.
If I had studied German in school, my German would be better.
I didn't study German in school so now my German isn't very good.
And of course you can switch the clauses around with the same meaning. My German would
be better if i had studied German in school. Baby, I love you, I can't stop thinking about you. Well
if you hadn't broken up with me, we would still be together. Break up means to end the relationship.
This couple did break up, this couple is not together now.
If you had put your coat on, you wouldn't be sick. You wouldn't be sick if you had put your coat on.
You didn't put your coat on so now
you are sick. So, we've looked at three examples of a hypothetical condition
in the past with its present hypothetical result. You can see the mixed conditional here .
But what about a present hypothetical condition and its hypothetical past result?
If I were rich, I would have bought that coat.
unreal present, hypothetical present, in reality I am not rich, I didn't buy the coat.
Why didn't you come to my birthday party? If I lived closer to you, I would have come. In reality, I
don't live close to you which means I couldn't go to your party. I didn't go to your party.
Okay amazing guys, well done! There was a lot of information in this video.
You know what, leave me a comment below, give me an example using
any of the conditionals. Good, so I really hope this lesson was helpful. SUBSCRIBE
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