ALL CONDITIONALS | 0,1,2,3 and MIXED CONDITIONALS - English Grammar | if....


Hi Guys! I'm Arnel and today we're going  to look at the four conditionals plus mixed

conditionals. Okay I'm going to begin with  a general overview of the conditionals  

and I will get more specific as  the lesson continues. In English, we  

have four conditionals 0 1 2 and 3 plus mixed  conditionals. Each conditional has an IF clause

comma and a main clause.

The IF clause gives us a conditionWhen I say condition, I mean situation,  

and the main clause gives us the result. The zero and the first conditional express  

real possible conditions and resultsthe second and third conditional express  

impossible, hypothetica,l unreal conditions and  results. Mixed conditionals are a combination  

of the second and third conditional. So, I  know it looks like a lot of information  

but by the end of this lesson you'll feel a lot  more confident and comfortable with conditionals.  

So, let's begin let's begin with the zero conditional. Condition | Result  

if plus present simple present simple. We use the  zero conditional to express real conditions and  

results that are always the same. Same in the pastsame in the present, same in the future. For example,

here I have two trees - If the wind blows, the  trees move. If plus present simple / present simple

This is real because wind always moves  trees right. This will will never change

So you can move the clauses  around and there's no difference.  

Maybe there's a little  difference, a mini difference.  

In writing, if your IF clause comes first ,add that  comma. If your main clause comes first you don't  

need a comma. So throughout this lesson you'll  see I'll kind of change things up. I'll start with  

the IF clause, I'll start with the main clause just so you know both ways are absolutely fine.

If I drink coffee after 3 PM, I don't  sleep at night. IF plus present simple /  

present simple. This is always true for me. It's  always the same. Same in the past, same in the  

present, same in the future. I don't sleep at  night if I drink coffee after 3 PM. Same thing.

Now, imagine you're giving  someone a tour of a building.  

If you push this button, the lights come on. You can  see, this is always going to be the same, it's never  

going to change. This button will never do anything  else. Imagine the zero conditional as a person...  

This person would be Miss Obvious. She  would tell you everything you already know

For example.... Hey Arnel! Yeah? I have  something really interesting to tell you.  

Okay.... If you leave ice cream  in the sun,... yeah... it melts.

Yes, yes it does.

People get hungry if they don't eat.

So you can see the zero conditional  is very good at expressing things  

that are always true things that never  really change. When you get home, call me.  

If Phil calls, don't answer the phone. If  you accidentally drop some trash, pick it up.

-call me -don't answer the phone -pick  it up, these are all imperatives, right?  

An imperative is a command. We can use  the imperative in the zero conditional

You can see the grammar is the sameIF present simple / present simple.

But here, I'm using WHEN. When you get home, call  me. So what's the difference between if and when?

If you put a stone in water, it sinks. When you put  a stone in water, it sinks. There is no difference  

in meaning because this is always true. But  sometimes, there is a difference. Let's get specific.  

WHEN - I'm certain this will  happen, I am expecting this.  

IF - maybe this will happen. When you get home, call me. In this situation I'm expecting my  

friend to get home. Ff course she's going home. We had dinner together, and now she's going home.

We'll look at this again in the first conditional.

First conditional. condition | result. IF plus present  simple / will plus infinitive. What's the infinitive?

You might know it as the 'base form'.  Infinitive / base form is verb number one.  

eat ate eaten, eat is my infinitive. talk  talked talked, talk is also my infinitive.

In the first conditional you'll often see  will. WILL plus infinitive, but other modal  

verbs are perfectly fine, any modal verb  that can give you that future feeling:  

can could may might. We can also use GOINGTO because 'going to' is a future form.  

We use the first conditional for a possible  future condition and its possible future result.  

If we don't leave soon, we'll miss our  train. IF present simple / will infinitive.

If I'm late for work again, I might lose my job.  

present simple / might plus infinitive. When  you tell Dan the news, he's gonna faint

gonna gonna gonna - of course in spoken English 'gonnais very informal, very lazy actually. When  

you're writing you want to write 'going to' and  FAINT is when you do this, when you're  

excited or scared or in love. So when you tell Dan  the news, he's going to faint. Of course with all  

of these you can also switch those clauses around  no problem. And you can see I'm using WHEN. I'm  

expecting this, I know you're going to tell Dan  the news. So let's look at unless. Unless? what is  

unless? So unless is a very common alternative for IF...NOT...

If you don't get an invitation, you can't  come to the party. If.. not = unless. Unless you  

get an invitation, you can't come to the  party. Here I mean, no invitation, no party.

If this program doesn't load, I  won't be able to finish my work.  

If... not = unless. Unless this program loads, I  won't be able to finish my work. No load, no work.

Zero conditional - done. First  conditional - done. Let's compare them.

If I have time, I work out. Work out  means exercise. If I have time,  

I'll work out. So what's the difference? Zero  conditional - this is true just generally in my life.  

If I have time, I work out. Sowork out maybe two times a week.

First conditional is more  specific. It's about a specific  

future condition. What are you doing later todayLater today? If I have time, I'll work out. I'LL.

So remember earlier, I said: the  second and third conditional express  

impossible hypothetical unreal conditions and  results. Unreal, impossible, hypothetical, hmm...

Sorry I couldn't resist doing that. So  just keep that feeling in mind as we look  

at the second and third conditionalSecond conditional: condition | result.  

If plus past simple / would plus infinitiveWOULD is probably the most common  

modal verb you'll see, but you can also use  other modal verbs. Might, could are also possible

We use the second conditional to speak about an  imaginary unreal hypothetical present or future  

condition, plus its imaginary unreal result. I know  it's strange, we're using the past simple here  

but we really are speaking about the present  or the future. So just keep that in mind.

If I won the lottery,

I would buy a mansion. A mansion is a big  house, a big beautiful expensive house.  

IF plus past simple / would plus infinitiveI would buy a mansion if I won the lottery.  

You can see this is a very unreal  condition and an impossible result.

If I were shorter, I would wear heels more.  

IF plus past simple / would plus infinitiveNow, why am I using WERE? Were I? Was I! I was!  

Right? When it comes to the second conditional  we often use WERE with any subject. If I were,  

if he were, she were. Yes WAS is also possible, but some people consider WERE to be more correct.

You know, the second conditional  is used a lot in songs.  

That's because in songs people are  dreaming, right? They're dreaming about  

life, they're dreaming about love. So I'm going  to play you a short a short piece of one of my  

favorite songs from one of my favorite musicalsSo listen out for that second conditional Okay.



Okay so here we have it, in the musicalpoor man is dreaming about being rich, so  

he's using the second conditional. If plus past  simple, notice that WERE / would plus infinitive...

biddy biddy bum. okay obviously biddy biddy bum is not a verb, but you can really see that grammar

Uh there's just so much informationI can't remember everything.

If I were you, I wouldn't worryConditionals take a long time to learn.  

Sometimes the best way to review and to  learn grammar is not by learning them  

separately. but by comparing them so let's do thatIf I listen to music on my phone, I use headphones

If I listen to music on my phone, I'll use  headphones. - I'll I'll. If I listen to music  

on my phone, I'd use headphones. So what's the  difference? Zero conditional: I always listen to  

music on my phone. When I do this, when I listen  to music on my phone, I use headphones every time

First conditional: more specific. Imagine you and a friend are studying.  

I'm gonna take a break. I might get a coffee  or listen to some music. No no music, I am studying.

Yeah, if i listen to music, I'll use my headphones, okay

You won't hear anythingYou can see a specific situation.

Second conditional: I never listen to music  on my phone, I like the radio, but if 

I listened to music on my phone, I'd use  headphones. The sound quality is better I think.

Third conditional. condition | result. If plus past  perfect. Remember, we formed the past perfect had  

plus past participle. What's the past participle? It's verb number three. eat ate eaten, eaten is my  

past participle. Remember the infinitive? talk  talked talked, talked is my past participle.  

Would have would have plus past participleNow, we always use HAVE, even if our subject  

is he or she, we use HAVE. HAVE every time for  every subject. WOULD is probably the most common

but you can also use COULD. We use the third  conditional to speak about a past unreal  

impossible situation, condition, plus its impossible  result. So third conditional is all about the past.

If I had studied harder, I would have passed  my exam. In reality I didn't study hard so in  

reality I didn't pass my exam. 'would've' - when speaking we always contract.  

If I'd studied harder, I would have passed my exam.

If you want to get lazier, you can just  say WOULDA. I WOULDA passed my exam.  

I would have made more food if I had known Karen and Paul were coming.  

In reality, I didn't make more food because  I didn't know they were coming. If I'd known  

Karen and Paul were coming  I would have made more food.

If I hadn't tripped, I could have, I could have won  the race. In reality I did trip so I didn't win.  

You can see all of these are impossible  because you cannot change the past  

impossible past condition  and their impossible result.

Review again: zero one two three, let's compare  all four conditionals to really get that feeling.

If we drive, we get there faster.  

If we drive, we'll get there faster. If we  drove, we'd get there faster. WE'D = we would

If we had driven, we would have gotten there  faster. We would have gotten there faster.  

Zero conditional: my husband and I work in the  same office. Sometimes we walk, sometimes we drive.  

If we drive, when we drive, we get there faster

Of course, driving is faster than  walking. Remember Miss Obvious?

First conditional: this isn't general like  the zero conditional, this is specific right?  

So tomorrow I want to visit my parents. Oh we can  take the four o'clock train. The four o'clock train?  

If we drive, we'll get there fasterSpecific future this is a possible.  

future conditional and a possible resultIf we drive, we'll get there faster.

Second conditional: my husband and I, we don't have  a car. It would be impossible to drive. We walk, we  

take the bus, but if we, if we drove, we'd get there  faster. We'd get to work faster. Third conditional : 

We got to my parents house 30 minutes late.  

If we had driven, we would have gotten there  faster. The train was 30 minutes late. Past  

hypothetical condition because  we didn't drive, we took the train.

So the good news is, when we look  at mixed conditionals we can forget  

about the zero and first conditionalSo let's keep going we're almost done.

So we know the second condition is abouthypothetical present future - If past simple  

would infinitive (or other modal). We know the  third conditional is about a hypothetical  

past condition with a hypothetical past result. If  plus past perfect / would have plus past participle.

So what happens if I want to speak about a  

hypothetical past condition with a hypothetical  present result? I need to mix them right.

If I had studied German in  school, my German would be better.

I didn't study German in school  so now my German isn't very good.

And of course you can switch the clauses  around with the same meaning. My German would  

be better if i had studied German in school. Baby, I love you, I can't stop thinking about you. Well  

if you hadn't broken up with me, we would still be  together. Break up means to end the relationship

This couple did break up, this  couple is not together now.

If you had put your coat on, you wouldn't be sickYou wouldn't be sick if you had put your coat on.  

You didn't put your coat on so now  

you are sick. So, we've looked at three  examples of a hypothetical condition  

in the past with its present hypothetical  result. You can see the mixed conditional here . 

But what about a present hypothetical  condition and its hypothetical past result?

If I were rich, I would have bought that coat.

unreal present, hypothetical present, in  reality I am not rich, I didn't buy the coat.

Why didn't you come to my birthday party? If I lived closer to you, I would have come. In reality, I 

don't live close to you which means I couldn't  go to your party. I didn't go to your party.

Okay amazing guys, well done! There was  a lot of information in this video.  

You know what, leave me a comment  below, give me an example using  

any of the conditionals. Good, so I really  hope this lesson was helpful. SUBSCRIBE  

to my channel, turn on those notifications so  you never miss a video and I'll see you soon.