Hi guys! I'm Arnel, and today we're going to look at four common words
that english students can often confuse.
If we want to understand how to use these words, we need to look at four things.
1. the definition 2. when we use these words - in positive statements, negatives, questions
3. the position in a sentence and 4. the difference between American English and British English
At the end of this lesson, I'm going to use all four of these in one situation
so you can really see the difference.
And remember, these words can have many different definitions and uses,
but today we're specifically focusing on them in terms of TIME. So let's begin with - still.
Still - we use still to emphasize that an action is continuing, it's ongoing. For example:
Now it's raining. You can see this on my timeline - now it's raining.
It's still raining. You can really see I'm emphasizing that something is continuing
and we often use STILL because this action, this continuation, is surprising.
My brother still lives with my parents.
Of course this sentence is perfectly correct if you remove 'still' - My brother lives with my
parents. But still gives you that emphasis. My brother still lives with my parents.
He's 38. I work from home because of Covid, but I can still go into the office if I need to.
I am still sick. I've been sick for two weeks. I am still sick.
Ookay you can see all these examples are in the present.
But you can also use still in the past and in the future.
Past: I woke up at 8 am and it was still dark out. It continued to be dark.
My parents divorced when I was seven, but they still had a good relationship.
Their good relationship continued.
Future: When you wake up, it will still be dark out. It will continue to be dark.
In two minutes, you will still be watching this video.
Hopefully. Okay we need to look at the position of still in detail. Why is a position so important?
Still is an adverb just like already yet and just. You know in English adverbs can
go in lots of different places. The good news is learning about the position of still will make
learning about the position of these other words so much easier. So let's take a look.
Still. Still can go in the middle position, often just called mid position. The middle position can
be1. before the main verb 2. after the auxiliary verb and before the main verb - like a sandwich.
3. after b
Okay let's look at this with examples from earlier: My brother lives with my parents. I have my main
verb, my only verb 'lives' and before that I add still - My brother still lives with my parents.
I can go into the office if I need to. I have my main verb 'go'
and my auxiliary verb 'can'. Still in the middle - like a sandwich. I can still go into the office
if i need to. I'm sick. I have my 'be' form and still goes after it. I'm still sick. Remember the 'be' forms?
These are the be forms you need to look out for. These rules are the same for questions. Does your
girlfriend still go to salsa classes? auxiliary/ main verb. Are you still here? After 'be'. So we have
the three positions but things change a little bit in the negative. I don't know how to use chopsticks.
Peter hasn't chosen what he wants from the menu. We can't visit our relatives. We know these sentences
are negative because we have 'not' and of course I have contracted them because that's natural. Main
verb/ auxiliary. Aha! Sandwich time! No sorry, in the negative put still before the auxiliaries.
I still don't know how to use chopsticks. Peter still hasn't chosen what he wants from the menu.
We still can't visit our relatives. Lots of information here but we are going to
look at these positions again in the lesson, and learning them now will make later on much easier.
Already: you are surprised because something happened before you expected it to happen /
earlier than expected or before something else.
What? Your son is already five years old?
Oh my goodness, time flies. I felt like I saw him yesterday and he was this little little baby.
But no, your son is already five years old. This is sooner than I expected. I''m a little bit surprised.
It's only January and the snow is already melting. Normally where I live the snow doesn't melt until
March / April, but it's January - the snow is already melting. Sooner than I expected.
Would you like a tea or coffee? No thank you, I already had one. Before now. Okay,
I have two examples in the present, one in the past. Yes you can also use already in the future. Why not?
When you arrive in San Francisco, Chloe and Alice will already be there. You can meet them in the
hotel. They'll be there before you. And look at those positions. We've already talked about this.
Before the main verb.
Are you hungry? Because here's a sandwich - between the auxiliary and the main verb. And after
'be'. With already the end position is also perfectly correct.
When we put already at the end of our sentence or at the end of the clause, it's a little bit more
informal. It's more casual and more emphatic actually. What? Your son is five years old already?
It's only January and the snow is melting already. Would you like a tea or coffee? No thank
you. I had one already. And when you arrive in San Francisco, Alice and Chloe will be there already.
And with already, the position and negatives and questions
doesn't change which is great. Let's take a moment to look at this example here.
Would you like a tea or coffee? No thank you, I already had one.
Past simple. You can also say I've, I have, I've already had one. Present perfect. Today's lesson is
not about the past simple or the present perfect, but I need to tell you one difference between
American English and British English. Generally Americans tend to use the past simple with already
just and yet. Speakers of British English tend to use the present perfect. So this isn't a
strict grammatical rule- it's a preference. So you'll hear both and it's just good to know.
Just: we use just for something that happened right before now or right before something else .
Rachel has just called and she left you a message. Rachel has just called /
Rachel just called - both are fine. Here, Rachel has just called / Rachel just called -
this is probably one minute ago. It's very recent, isn't it?
Did you get a chance to go to the wildlife photography exhibition?
I was just there. I went during my lunch break. It was amazing. I was just there. This is probably
20 minutes ago. Have you seen Vic anywhere? He should be in his office, I was just talking to him.
I was just talking to him five minutes ago. Okay here we have 20 minutes ago, five minutes ago
one minute ago, this is very recent but recent is relative right? I could say: We just bought a house.
And this could be two months ago, but that's pretty recent in terms of buying a house.
You just saw a ghost and once again we have that mid position.
1. before the main verb 2. between the auxiliary and the main verb 3.after 'be'. So let's compare
still already and just before we move on to yet. Hey do you feel like meeting up later? Cafe?
Sorry not today, I'm still working on my essay. I thought you already finished it. No, to be honest ,
I just started. Still: I'm continuing to work on my essay. Already: something is finished before now.
Just: very recently. I started 10 minutes ago
And yes we can put already at the end - I thought you finished it already.
Yet: we are waiting for something to happen, we are expecting something. We use yet in negatives and
questions. Why? b=Because an action hasn't happened. We are either waiting for the action or we are asking
about the action. I'm hungry. I haven't eaten breakfast yet. But I'm going to eat breakfast.
I will eat breakfast soon. You can't go to the supermarket now. It's not open yet. It's only 7 a.m.
But it will open it will open soon. We're expecting it to open of course.
Has the meeting started yet? I'm expecting a meeting so I'm asking if it started
or not. I don't know why Zoe was complaining about the new intern. She hadn't even met him yet.
The good thing about yet is the position.
It's at the end of your clause, at the end of your sentence. That makes things pretty simple.
Of course you can remove yet from all of these and they're perfectly correct but once again
yet gives you that little emphasis that you're expecting something. Let's compare: I haven't seen
that movie. I haven't seen that movie yet. The first example is just general information - I
haven't seen that movie. Have you seen that movie? Is it any good? In the second example the speaker
is going to watch the movie. They're expecting to watch the movie but they just haven't done it ...
yet. Have you signed Phil's birthday card? No I haven't signed it. No I haven't signed it yet.
The second example is a lot more natural because in the second example the speaker is gonna sign
it. They will sign it when when they have some free time. The first example is a little bit unnatural
and it's missing something. Have you signed Phil's birthday card? No I haven't signed it.
Any other questions? Okay so we know now we use yet in negatives and questions at that
end position. But you probably or you might have seen yet used in a positive sentence. For example,
We can use this structure: have yet to/ has yet to + infinitive. This also means you're expecting
something. You're waiting for something. For example: The stolen jewels have yet to be recovered.
The judges have yet to announce a winner. You can see here we have yet. It's not at the end,
and there's no negative there's no question. It's a positive statement which is perfectly correct.
So you can use yet in this type of structure and there are other other variations but this isn't
very common and it's quite formal. so I really do suggest keep yet for those negatives
and questions at the end of your sentence
Amazing! Let's look at all four of these words
in one in one situation so you can really compare the difference and see how how necessary they are.
My boss and his wife are coming over to my house for dinner. They're not here yet, but they'll be
here in about 30 minutes. And actually I'm really nervous so the... I already made
the potatoes and the salad. The fish is still in the oven, the fish is still baking.
and I just remembered, I didn't buy any drinks. I don't have any drinks. So here we can see yet
in the negative.' I'm expecting my boss and his wife to to be at my house soon. I'm expecting this.
Already: something is done, it's finished before now. I already made the potatoes, I already made
the salad. Still: ongoing. The fish is still in the oven. It's still baking. Just: I just remembered -
one moment ago. That's them. Subscribe to my channel.