Naučite engleski jezik kod gospodina Duncana - Lekcija 50 (Samuel Johnson)

Welcome to Lichfield Cathedral.

Lichfield Cathedral stands high and proud above the Staffordshire city, whose name it bears. The most obvious feature, being the three tall spires which have been nicknamed 'The ladies of the Vale'. The central spire is 77 Metres tall and the two western spires each measure over 58 Metres.

The public entrance is via the west doorway and admission is usually free but of course you are more than welcome to make a generous donation as you walk in.

The internal length of the Cathedral is 113 Metres and is made up of many different sections, housing various artefacts, such as tombs, statues and regimental colour flags. There is also a memorial to Michael Johnson the father of the writer of Samuel Johnson, who we will be hearing more about later.

The Cathedral itself is built on the site of the original Saxon Church which stood there before, however the Cathedral that stands here today is the second one to be built, replacing the first Norman structure over seven hundred years ago. During those years, the Cathedral has undergone many transformations, not least of all, its virtual destruction during the English Civil War. Since then it has been heavily renovated, with many of the stone statues on the outside being re-carved as copies of the original ones.

The building is steeped in History. The stained glass windows literally reflect ages past. Stories of heroism and legends of valour from days long since gone.

These types of buildings hold a profound fascination for me. They are a tangible connection with the past. All that went before is preserved, although not always perfectly. In one way or another, we are all a part of History. Although the marks we leave upon it vary considerably.

These days the Cathedral serves many purposes. Weddings, funerals, and daily services are all still held hereand of course its historical value which makes Lichfield Cathedral a place well worth visiting.

You know the world of English is a fun and exciting place to be. I'm so glad you could join me for another lesson.

Hi everybody, this is Misterduncan in England. How are you today? Are you OK? I hope so! Are you happy? I hope so! In today's special lesson I'm in a City which is famous for its magnificent Cathedral and for being the birthplace of a man whose hard work and dedication helped us all to understand and learn about the way in which the English language should be used, by creating the earliest definitive version of the English Dictionary. It also happens to be his 300th birthday this year. The City is LichfieldThe man in question is Samuel Johnson.

Samuel Johnson. His Life and Work.

Samuel Johnson was born inside this house in the Market Square, Lichfield on September 18th 1709. His father's name was Michael who was a Bookseller. His mother's name was Sarah. According to Samuel, his family had little money and his early life was spent in virtual poverty. Samuel's mother encouraged him to read from a very early age and by the time he began school at 4 he was more than able to recite long passages from 'The book of common prayer'. There was very little doubt that Samuel was a smart and intelligent boy indeed.

Samuel Johnson's childhood was blighted by ill health. He suffered from Scrofula, which is a form of Tuberculosis and the treatment for this condition left Johnson scarred on both his face and his body.

In school Johnson showed even more promise, excelling at Latin and gaining an even greater grasp of the English language too.

He took a break from his education at the age of 16 to stay with his cousins, which gave Johnson yet another insight into the world of literature, via his new friend Cornelius Ford.

Hi there! Samuel Johnson resumed his education six months later in Stourbridge, but that only lasted for half a year before he returned to Lichfield to help his father run the bookshop. To make money, Samuel would work stitching books together. Of course this period would have given Johnson the perfect opportunity to continue reading literature, thus allowing him to acquire yet more knowledge.

It seemed as if Johnson's education had come to an end, but fortune was on his side, when a cousin of his mother died and left some money to the family. This, plus some financial help from a friend helped to pay for Samuel's entry to Pembroke College Oxford, where his studies were allowed to continue. This period proved very useful for Johnson and once again he was able to show-off his writing skills, with one of his earliest works 'Messiah' being praised very highly and eventually appearing in print.

Just over a year after beginning his university life, Johnson was forced to leave, due to a lack of funds to pay for his studies. He left with no degree, however by this time he was very well versed in Greek, French and of course English.

Samuel's future seemed uncertain after this set-back. He applied to work in a school, but his application was overlooked due to Johnson having no degree. More bad news came his way with the death of his father in 1731. Fortunately he was offered a job in another school without needing a degree, thanks to the generosity of the school's owner. And so Samuel began to teach.

A few months after beginning this teaching work, Johnson left the school, feeling disenchanted with the lowly position of Usher. However, this did not put Samuel off pursuing a career in the teaching profession and he persevered with his search.

After another failed attempt at finding teaching work Samuel joined forces with some friends in Birmingham where he set himself to work translating and adapting works of literature into English, which saw Johnson's name, once again appearing in print.

Samuel Johnson had many friends and this need for friendship became a strong theme throughout his life. One of Johnson's friends, Harry Potter, became seriously ill and eventually died, leaving a wife and three children. Samuel began to court the widow, who's name was Elizabeth and eventually she became Johnson's wife. Which caused some disapproval and outrage due to the wide age gap between her and him. She was 46… and he was 25.

Johnson made another attempt at applying for a job at a school and once again his application was turned down. This time the rejection was due to prejudice, you see, Johnson suffered from a nervous condition which caused him to twitch involuntarily. This gave him a slightly unusual character which some people could not, or simply refused to understand.

Encouraged by one of his friends, Johnson set up his own private school just outside Lichfield. The student intake was small and not particularly profitable, but one of his pupils at the academy, David Garrick, would later go on to become a much celebrated actor, as well as influencing Johnson's own life.

Dear Mr Lomax, having a wonderful time here in Lichfield. The City is very beautiful. Financial problems later hit Johnson's school and it was forced to close, due to a lack of money. It was at this point that Samuel Johnson's life once again changed dramatically.

He and his former student, David Garrick went to London to seek out their fortune. At first he did some translation work and later took on the job as a writer for a magazine. As well as finalising an ongoing work of his, the Play, 'Irene'. He published a Poem called 'London', although he did not put his name to it. Johnson was not revealed as the author until 15 years after its first publication.

This is probably a good point at which to talk about another one of Johnson's characteristics. His mood. Samuel Johnson was dogged with mood swings and deep depression for most of his life. He had a sometimes self-destructive nature which would cloud everything he did. This part of his psyche would go on to almost destroy one of the things he is best known for creating.

The one thing that held Johnson back at this time was the lack of any formal degree. He even tried to gain one through some of his influential friends, but to no avail. Johnson continued with his writing and eventually wrote a biography of his friend, the Poet Richard Savage, which won Johnson a great deal of praise and recognition.

And so it was in 1746, when a group of publishers approached Johnson with the idea of writing a definitive version of a Dictionary of the English language. It appears that the main reason for this venture was based on making money, rather than allowing people to have a better grasp of English. Johnson's vision was that of a book which would not only open up the language of English, but also the world in which they lived. Using references from hundreds of books to illustrate and define each word.

It is worth noting that France had already published a Dictionary of standard French and there was also one for Italian. The idea for a definitive English Dictionary seemed too good to pass, plus it is worth remembering that at this time, Britain as a unified country had only existed for around forty years, so this was a good chance to create the feeling of being British and give this new nation an identity it could relate to.

Johnson signed a contract and would be paid 1500 Guineas over a three year period. So he set to work on the huge task by moving into a house off Fleet Street in London, Number 17 Gough Square. He organized the project by himself with the help of six assistants, whose job it would be to copy out all of the notable words by hand.

Despite all of the assistance, the creating process of Johnson's Dictionary was a slow and laborious one. Money was the main problem, or more to the point, a lack of it. The task of compiling and finally getting the Dictionary in to print took nine years. This includes a three year gap during one of Johnson's depressions, when it seemed as if the project was doomed. However, it was completed and in April 1755, the first copies of the Dictionary went on sale for the princely sum of £4.10s, which was a large amount of money at that time. In front of me here, I have one of the original copies of Johnson's Dictionary and the feeling of touching it is rather like meeting a famous film star for the first timeA feeling of excitementand anxiety overwhelms me. It's quite amazingbut here it isone of Johnson's original dictionaries.

As a point of interest, the Dictionary was only allowed to be printed on the condition that Samuel Johnson received some formal recognition for his work with the award of a degree, which was duly given. So Samuel Johnson becameDr. Johnson.

Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English language changed the way in which all subsequent lexicons were composed. The use of similes and quotations are nowadays commonplace in all dictionaries. For anyone learning a new language, a Dictionary gives the most instructive insight into the way in which that particular language is used. It has the ability to inform, enlighten, and educate.

2009 marks the 300th anniversary of Samuel Johnson's birth and here in his birthplace there will be many celebrations taking place to mark this event. There can be little doubt about the impact that Johnson's Dictionary had, on not only 18th century Britain, but with all of the various English dictionaries that have been published since. Samuel Johnson loved the English language. He saw it as something to be cherished, a portal through which to share knowledge and express that which the heart wishes to say.

One of Samuel Johnson's closest friends was a man named James Boswell. Later he would publish a biography of Johnson's life. Boswell took the liberty of writing down many of the thoughts and feelings that Samuel frequently expressed. Many of the quotes have gone down in history as pieces of profound thought and clearly demonstrate the wit and wisdom of this great man.

'No man but a blockhead ever wrote expect for money.'

'Great works are performed not by strength, but perseverance.'

'Sir, I am obliged to any man who visits me.'

'I look upon every day to be lostin which I do not make a new acquaintance.'

'Actions are visible though motives are secret.'

'If a man does not make new acquaintances as he advances through lifehe will soon find himself left aloneA man, sir, should keep his friendship in constant repair.'

'Every man is to take existence on the terms on which it is given.'

'When making your choice in life do not neglect to live.'

OhDear!! Am I there yet? There are so many stairshereat the Johnson Museum. I think this must have been likegoing to the Gym three hundred years ago.

It would be very hard to describe Johnson in just a few words. He was a Poet, a Playwright, a Wordsmith, a Raconteur. He had an amazing memory for quotations and was a master at creating his own. His final years were not happyHis wife had died and many of his close friends had also passed away. Depression and a fear of loneliness overshadowed his final days. Samuel Johnson died on December 13th 1784. His body was buried at Westminster Abbey in London. Statues of him were later erected in both Londonand here at the place in which he was born almost three hundred years agoThe Cathedral City of Lichfield.