One of the strangest things about English people is what we eat for breakfast. Some people have a cooked breakfast, with bacon and eggs and sausages. But most people are far too busy to cook things for breakfast. So they have a nice cup of tea or coffee, and toast, spread with marmalade. Marmalade is a type of jam, made out of oranges. Not ordinary orangesthey are too sweetbut very bitter oranges which are grown near Seville in Spain. These oranges are picked in January, and nearly all of them are exported to Britain to make into marmalade.

You can of course buy marmalade in a supermarket. But shop-bought marmalade is poor stuff. It contains too much sugar and not enough oranges. (My grandmother used to say that shop marmalade was made with potatoes!) No, if you want proper marmalade, you have to make it yourself at home.

The last two weeks in January is marmalade time. It is cold outside. Perhaps a few snowflakes are falling. But inside, the kitchen is warm and a delicious smell of oranges fills the house. So how do we make marmalade? The ingredients are simpleSeville oranges, a lemon, sugar and water. We chop the oranges and the lemon finely, including the peel. We add the water, and bring it to the boil. We boil the mixture until the oranges are cooked, then we add the sugar and continue boiling until the marmalade begins to set (ie until it starts to form a jelly). Then we put the marmalade into glass jars, and put a pretty label on each jar sayingmarmalade”. You can store marmalade for a year or even longer until you need it. A jar of home-made marmalade makes a lovely present to give to friends or relatives.

Sarah Franklin has taken some wonderful photographs of making marmalade. On her flickr page she has included her recipe, soif you can find any Seville orangesyou can have a go yourself. For myself, I have another 10 kilos of marmalade to make before the next podcast.

There is a grammar and vocabulary note with this podcast. If you are listening on iTunes or an iPod, you will need to go to the podcast website to see it.

Marmalade - grammar and vocabulary note

You will often find that in English there are many different ways of saying the same thing. Look at these sentences:

Marmalade is made with oranges and sugar

Marmalade is made out of oranges and sugar

Marmalade is made from oranges and sugar

Marmalade is made of oranges and sugar

All of these mean the same! And here are two more ways of talking about the things which we use to make marmalade.

Marmalade contains oranges and sugar

The ingredients of marmalade are oranges, a lemon, sugar and water.

.A recipe is a set of instructions for how to cook something, such as a cake. The recipe will tell you what food items (or ingredients) you need eg flour, butter, eggs, sugar; and what equipment you need eg a mixing bowl, a baking tin, an electric mixer.